Common kingfishers have few natural predators as adults. However, because they are high on the food chain, they are susceptible to the effects of bioaccumulation, the concentration of pollutants as they climb the food chain. Nestlings may be preyed on by snakes and other ground-dwelling predators, but kingfishers are aggressive birds and do defend their young against predators.
- Kingfisher wildlife information leaflet, 2005. "The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds" (On-line). Accessed October 12, 2005 at http://www.rspb.org.uk/birds/guide/k/kingfisher/fishing.asp.