Giant pandas have an extremely strict energy budget. They travel little and are usually foraging when they do move. Giant pandas can spend 10-12 hours a day feeding. Bamboo, the main source of pandas' diet (over 99%) is a very poor nutritional source but present all year round. Only about 17% of the nutrients found in the leaves and stalks are extracted. These bears make a trade-off to have a plentiful, easily obtained food source but with low nutritional value. Giant pandas are well-known for their upright feeding position which leaves their forelegs free to handle the bamboo stalks. This species has several special characteristics related to eating bamboo. The extra digit on the panda's hand helps the panda in tearing the bamboo. This adaptation also allows increased dexterity while handling bamboo. The stomach walls are extremely muscular to help digest the woody diet; and the gut is covered with a thick layer of mucus to protect against splinters (Ward and Kynaston, 1995; Malius, 2001; Massicot, 2001).
Foods eaten include: bamboo stems and shoots, fruits of plant matter like kiwi, small mammals, fish and insects.
Animal Foods: mammals; fish; insects
Plant Foods: leaves; fruit
Primary Diet: herbivore (Folivore )
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