Populations of elkhorn coral have declined drastically since the 1980's. Estimates are in the range of 90-95% reduction in abundance since 1980 in areas where loss has been quantified. Reductions of 75-90% were observed in some areas such as the Florida keys in 1998 due to bleaching and hurricane damage. The species is listed as Threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and Critically Endangered by the IUCN. Like all stony corals (Scleractinia) it is listed in Appendix II of CITES, so international trade is somewhat limited.
US Federal List: threatened
CITES: appendix iii
State of Michigan List: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: critically endangered