Needs: Protect areas where plants occur as well as enough buffer land to guarantee survival and protect against potential microclimatic change. Populations occurring along stream and river channels need upstream watershed protection as well. Historic sites where habitat conditions still appear suitable would also be good candidates for protection, as the recovery plan states a goal of reestablishment of populations in suitable habitat within the species' historic range (Currie 1993). If some cave/sinkhole sites cannot be protected, restrictions on use by spelunkers should be considered, especially where trampling and alteration of natural vegetation appear to be primary threats. Austen (2000) notes that the Niagara Escarpment in Ontario, where most Ontario populations are located, is protected as a World Biosphere Reserve. Nevertheless, many sites where the plant occurs are not sufficiently protected from various threats; despite protective policies, the Escarpment, particularly in the highly developed areas to the south, continues to be pressured by expanding human populations (Austen 2000).
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