Comments: In 1987, this species faced many threats including development, conversion of land for agricultural purposes, and frequent burning. Other threats include logging, vandalism, genetic introgression, and alteration of natural fire regimes. One grove also was threatened by oil and gas drilling (USFWS 1987). A recovery plan was created for this species that updated the threats to this species in 1998. The grove that was threatened by gas and oil drilling is less threatened by these activties because the drilling attempts failed and the operation was abandoned. Any future drilling efforts are to be coordinated by the BLM, but drilling is not currently a threat. Also, since 1975 no further development has taken place near or on land that the species occupies, however, indirect threats due to surrounding housing does exist. These indirect threats are soil erosion, wood cutting, insect infestation and invasion of non-native species. Timber harvesting may be less of a threat as the timber company is aware of the rare species, however, indirect effects of nearby harvesting may cause wind and water erosion. Another grove that was in danger of being converted into a vineyard, is now protected as The Nature Conservancy bought the property in 1989, which was then deeded to the California Department of Fish and Game as an ecological preserve. Other threats such as alteration of fire regimes still threaten (USFWS 1998).