Comments: Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) is intolerant of fire and historically was kept in restricted sites by natural fires. Since the advent of effective fire control and intensive livestock grazing (reducing ground fuel and understory competition), regeneration and establishment of western juniper have expanded into suitable sites previously dominated by mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana). This expansion of young stands is common in Oregon, Idaho, and northeastern California (Burns and Honkala, 1990). Big sagebrush is readily killed when aboveground plant parts are charred by fire. If sagebrush foliage is exposed to temperatures above 195 degrees Fahrenheit (90C) for longer than 30 seconds, the plant dies. Among the three major subspecies of big sagebrush, basin big sagebrush is considered intermediate in flammability. Mountain big sagebrush is most flammable, and Wyoming big sagebrush is least flammable. (Tirmenstein, 1999).