Degree of Threat: B : Moderately threatened throughout its range, communities provide natural resources that when exploited alter the composition and structure of the community over the long-term, but are apparently recoverable
Comments: Threatened by mortality from long-line fisheries. In each of the years 1996-1998 an estimated 2,000 were killed in the waters around Hawaii (Ornithological Council 1999). Loss of up to one percent of the population annually due to capture in driftnets has been reported (Whittow 1993).
"Unusually large numbers of adults died on Midway in 1995 from acute anemia of unknown origin. Lead poisoning from paint chips and necrotizing enteritis are major causes of mortality in chicks on Midway Atoll. In 1997, lead mitigation efforts on Midway were evaluated and management guidelines provided to the US Fish and Wildlife Service" (Work and Rameyer 1998).
Other threats include predation by polynesian rats, dogs, and mongoose on the main Hawaiian Islands, and collisions with objects (resulting from disorientation caused by artificial lighting). Avian pox is common.