Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)
Comments: North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data indicate a stable population in North America, 1966-1994; nonsignificant increase of 4% occurred from 1966 to 1993 and a nonsignificant increase of 6% from 1984 to 1993 (Price et al. 1995). Most states report stable populations with some reporting possible declines (Illinois, Wisconsin), and others reporting possible increases (North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania). Litwin and Smith (1992) stated that populations have dropped by 50 percent between 1950 and 1980 at the Sapsucker Woods Sanctuary in Ithaca, New York. They associated this decrease with the loss of vertical and horizontal heterogeneity, and the overall decline in productivity associated with forest maturation. This local study may offer insight to other patterns of population decline.