Restoration Potential: Unknown. Still a relatively common species in appropriate habitats, but threats to species and habitats are poorly understood.
Preserve Selection and Design Considerations: Utilizes a variety of dry, shrubby habitats often with some coniferous tree component, and may be dependent on riparian habitats during certain seasons. Otherwise, no information available on this species' landscape relationships, such as area sensitivity, habitat configuration, patch size, use of habitat corridors, successional stages, etc.
Management Requirements: Management requirements unknown. Reproductive success is affected by microhabitat, but needs further study (Martin 1998). Activities that reduce or remove preferred shrub habitats (e.g., shrub eradication, fire, some grazing, campgrounds, off-road vehicle use, urbanization) could be detrimental but effects are unstudied.
TIMBER HARVEST: In pine-oak forests, associated with presence of oaks (Rosenstock 1998). Gambel oak often vulnerable to fuelwood collecting and shrub eradication efforts which would be detrimental. Regeneration of dense shrubs on harvested units probably beneficial, but data is lacking.
FIRE: Response to fire poorly known. Declines immediately after fires that remove shrub habitats and brushy understories, but should benefit from burns that promote regeneration of shrubs and native understory grasses. Many oaks can resprout and possibly recolonize areas after fire, and fire may be necessary to create forest openings and maintain oak in the landscape (Finch et al. 1997). Significant drop in abundance in Arizona on controlled burns that removed the combustible understory and reduced the number of potential nest sites and foraging opportunities (Horton 1987). In New Mexico, Johnson and Wauer (1996) observed a drop in abundance on burned plots, but eventual increase 2 to 4 years post-fire as shrubs developed. In the last century, fire regimes have changed markedly in pinyon-juniper, mountain mahogany, oak scrub, and southwestern ponderosa pine habitats due fire suppression, grazing, timber harvest and other management activities (Horton 1987; West 1988; Fulé et al. 1997) with unknown affects on distribution. Further study needed of the species' immediate and longer-term responses to current burn patterns and natural fire regimes.
GRAZING: No information on direct or indirect effects of grazing. Likely declines with grazing practices that reduce the volume of shrub cover or remove young shrubs suitable for nest sites and nests may be vulnerable to trampling. On the other hand, heavy grazing that reduces grass competition and promotes shrub dominance could be beneficial. Over the last century, livestock grazing in pinyon/juniper, mountain mahogany/oak scrub, and southwestern ponderosa pine habitats has generally altered vegetation composition, age structures, and fire patterns (West 1988), with unknown consequences for this warbler.
Management Research Needs: Little known about natural history and ecology; migratory patterns; lifespan and survivorship; physiology; nutrition and energetics; disease, nest predation and other sources of mortality; philopatry, territory and home range size; details of habitat relationships; limiting factors. Need quantified information on habitat, microhabitat, and landscape relations, particularly as they affect reproductive success and survival. Need information on winter and migration habitat use; threats on breeding and wintering grounds; effects of land management activities including grazing, timber harvest, fuelwood collecting, shrub eradication, and fire management; relationships to ecological processes such as fire and drought; vulnerability to brood parasitism near agriculture and human habitation.
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