Lives mostly on or near the bottom, from the surf zone, in shallow bays, and around coral and rocky reefs down to at least 191 m depth on the outer shelves (Ref. 247). Migratory species which feeds on small fish, sharks, rays, squids, and on crabs and lobsters occasionally (Ref. 5213). Maybe solitary or forms small to large schools. Reproduction features ovophagy or uterine cannibalism. Only one of 16-23 egg cases survives. Inoffensive and unaggresive when not provoked (Ref. 247).
- Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=5909
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