Found over sandy and muddy areas of coastal waters, including estuaries. May inhabit oceanic waters. Feeds on benthic animals, fishes, rays, gastropods, and squids (Ref. 5213). Viviparous; litter size 1-14 pups, born during midsummer (Ref. 5485); 56-75 cm at birth (Ref. 2334). Populations are segregated by age. Preferred water tempeatures range from 23 to 27°C. Potentially dangerous but has never been incriminated in any attack on people. Utilized for human consumption, for leather and oil. Marketed fresh, dried-salted and frozen; fins are valued for soup (Ref. 9987).
- Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=5909
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