Present in Congo and Lower Guinea provinces. Holotype from Gabon. Locally very abundant. In the Congo basin Petrocephalus microphthalmus is present in the Lower Congo River in the vicinity of Brazzaville. In the Lower Guinea province this species is widespread throughout the entire Ogooué and Ntem basins in Gabon, including streams and lakes associated with main river channels (e.g., Lac Zilé). It can also be found along the coastal region from the Sanaga River (Cameroon) in the north to the more southern Niari–Kouilou River (Republic of Congo).
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