Native circum-tropical distribution: Africa, Australia, Bermuda, China, Fiji, India, Japan, Maldives, New Caledonia, Hawaii (USA)
Non-native range: Australia, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Monaco, New Zealand, Spain, Tunisia, California (USA)
First observed in Mediterranean in 1984 in Monaco from which it spread rapidly (Bourdouresque et al., 1995). Found in Southern California 12 June 2000, where rapid-respone eradication and control measures seem to have been fairly effective (Williams & Grosholz, 2002; Anderson, 2005; SCCAT accessed 1 February 2011).
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