Mammoths belong to the order Proboscidea, which also include mastodons and modern African and Asian elephants. Species in this order can be immense in size, and the larger species have massive column-like limbs, a long and flexible trunk, and well-developed tusks.
Mammoth teeth were made up of molars, and these molars are made of a series of vertical flat plates. Each half of the jaw contained 6 molars. The molar plates were made of ridges of compressed enamel which covered cementum. (Human teeth also have enamel covering cementum.) These strong molars looked like washboards, and did not wear easily. They were used to shear vegetation like scissors. Mammoth skulls were high and dome-like. The lower jaw was large with a well-defined chin. The nasal bones were shortened to make room for the long trunk, and the long curved tusks projected well beyond the nasal bones.
Mammoths were similar in shape and size to modern elephants, but were covered in long, coarse hair. The hair was black or reddish-brown in color and could be up to 50cm long. Some species of mammoths also had an undercoat of wooly hair about 2.5 cm thick.
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