Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is an obligate biennial herb of the cabbage family (Brassicaceae), which also known as the mustard flowers. Seedlings emerge in spring and form basal rosettes by midsummer. Immature plants overwinter as basal rosettes. In the spring of the second year the rosettes (now adult plants) produce flower stalks, set seed, and subsequently die.
Basal leaves are dark-green and kidney-shaped with scalloped edges, 6-10 cm diameter. Stem leaves are alternate, sharply-toothed, triangular or deltoid, and average 3-8 cm long and wide, gradually reducing in size towards the top of the stem. All leaves have pubescent petioles 1-5+ cm long. New leaves produce a distinct garlic odor when crushed. The fragrance fades as leaves age, and is virtually non-existent by fall.
Alliaria petiolata invades forested communities and edge habitats. The plant has no known natural enemies in North America, is self-fertile, and is difficult to eradicate once established. Thus, the best and most effective control method for Alliaria petiolata is to prevent its initial establishment.
Cutting flowering Alliaria petiolata plants at ground level results in 99% mortality, and eliminates seed production. Cutting at 10 cm above ground level results in 71% mortality and reduces seed production by 98% (Nuzzo 1991). Cutting is most effective when plants are in full bloom and/or have developed siliques; plants cut earlier in the flowering period may have sufficient resources to produce additional flowerstems from buds on the root crown (Nuzzo, personal observation).