The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a felid found from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China, and has been classified as vulnerable in 2008 by IUCN. Its total population size is suspected to be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals, with a decreasing population trend and no single population numbering more than 1,000 adults.
The fur of clouded leopards is of a dark grey or ochreous ground-colour, often largely obliterated by black and dark dusky-grey blotched pattern. There are black spots on the head, and the ears are black. Partly fused or broken up stripes run from the corner of the eyes over the cheek, from the corner of the mouth to the neck, and along the nape to the shoulders. Elongated blotches continue down the spine and form a single median stripe on the loins. Two large blotches of dark dusky-grey hairs on the side of the shoulders are each emphasized posteriorly by a dark stripe, which passes on to the fore leg and breaks up into irregular spots. The flanks are marked by dark dusky-grey irregular blotches bordered behind by long, oblique irregularly curved or looped stripes. These blotches yielding the clouded pattern suggest the English name of the cat. The underparts and legs are spotted, and the tail is marked by large irregular paired spots.
Melanistic clouded leopards are not common. They weigh between 11.5 and 23 kg (25 and 51 lb). Females vary in head-to-body length from 68.6 to 94 cm (27.0 to 37 in), with a 61 to 82 cm (24 to 32 in) long tail. Males are larger at 81 to 108 cm (32 to 43 in) with a 74 to 91 cm (29 to 36 in) long tail. Their shoulder height varies from 25 to 40 cm (9.8 to 16 in).
Their legs are short and stout, with broad paws. They have exceptionally long, piercing canine teeth, the upper being about three times as long as the basal width of the socket. The upper pair of canines may measure 4 cm (1.6 in) or longer.
Distribution and habitat
Clouded leopards are native to Indochina, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. They are regionally extinct in Taiwan, and occur marginally in mixed-evergreen forests of the northeastern and southeastern parts of Bangladesh. In the Himalayas they have been recorded up to an altitude of 2,500 m (8,200 ft). They have been reported from relatively open, dry tropical forest in Myanmar and Thailand. They prefer open- or closed-forest habitats to other habitat types.
In Assam, they have been observed in forests but have not been recorded in protected areas. They occur in northern West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.
Distribution of subspecies
- Neofelis nebulosa nebulosa (Griffith, 1821): lives in Southern China to eastern Myanmar;
- Neofelis nebulosa macrosceloides (Hodgson, 1853): lives in Nepal to Myanmar;
- Neofelis nebulosa brachyura (Swinhoe, 1862): used to live in Taiwan, and is considered extinct. The last confirmed sighting dates to 1989, when the skin from a small individual was found in the Taroko area.
Ecology and behavior
Because of the animal's reclusive nature, the behavior of the clouded leopard in the wild is little known. With no evidence for a pack or pride society like that of the lion, it is assumed that it is a generally solitary creature, and it appears to be primarily nocturnal. Clouded leopards are largely arboreal, hunting prey in the trees, and also using trees to rest during the day. However, they spend a significant proportion of their time on the ground, and sometimes inhabit environments without tall trees.
Clouded leopards have been observed to scent mark in captivity, for example by urine spraying and head-rubbing on prominent objects. Presumably such habits are used to mark their territory in the wild, although the size of their home ranges is unknown. Like other big cats, they do not appear able to purr, but they otherwise have a wide range of vocalisations, including mewing, hissing, growling, moaning, and snorting.
The clouded leopard is an excellent climber. Short, flexible legs, large paws, and sharp claws combine to make it very sure-footed in the canopy. The clouded leopard's tail can be as long as its body, further aiding in balance, giving it a squirrel-like agility similar to the margay of South America. Surprisingly, this arboreal creature can climb while hanging upside-down under branches, and descend tree trunks head-first. In captivity, clouded leopards routinely hang by its hind legs using its long tail for balance, and runs head-first down tree trunks. Little is known about its behavior in the wild, but it is assumed from this behavior that a favored hunting tactic is to drop on prey from the trees.
Though remarkably little is known about the natural history and behavioral habits of this species in the wild, it is now thought that its primary prey includes both arboreal and terrestrial mammals, particularly deer, supplemented by similarly sized prey such as monkeys, civets, birds, porcupines, and domestic livestock. Clouded leopards that are held in captivity also eat eggs and some vegetation.
Females give birth to a litter of two to four cubs after a gestation period of about 85 to 93 days. Initially, the young are blind and helpless, much like the young of many other cats, and weigh from 140 to 280 grams (4.9 to 9.9 oz). Unlike adults, the kittens' spots are "solid"—completely dark rather than dark rings. The young can see within about 10 days of birth, are active within five weeks, and are fully weaned at around three month of age.
Clouded leopards attain the adult coat pattern at around six months, and probably become independent after around ten months. They reach sexual maturity at two years of age, and females are able to bear one litter each year. Adults in captivity have lived as long as 17 years. In the wild, they have an average 11 year lifespan.
Many of the remaining forest areas are too small to ensure the long-term persistence of clouded leopard populations. They are threatened by habitat loss following large–scale deforestation and commercial poaching for the wildlife trade. Skins, claws and teeth are offered for decoration and clothing, bones and meat as substitute for tiger in traditional Asian medicines and tonics, and live animals for the pet trade. Few poaching incidents have been documented, but all range states are believed to have some degree of commercial poaching. In recent years, substantial domestic markets existed in Indonesia, Myanmar and Vietnam.
In Myanmar, 301 body parts of at least 279 clouded leopards, mostly skins and skeletons, were observed in four markets surveyed between 1991 to 2006. Three of the surveyed markets are situated on international borders with China and Thailand, and cater to international buyers, although clouded leopards are completely protected under Myanmar's national legislation. Effective implementation and enforcement of CITES is considered inadequate.
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora included the clouded leopard in the Appendix I. Over most of their range, they are protected by national legislation. Hunting is banned in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Hunting regulations apply in Lao PDR.
Only seven clouded leopards have ever been radio collared and their territorial movements monitored and recorded. Most of these cats were studied in Thailand and Nepal. Other available information on their ecology is anecdotal, based on local interviews and a few sighting reports, or stems from captive animals. Very little is known of their natural history, ecology and behavior in the wild throughout their range, because due to their largely arboreal and nocturnal habits they are difficult to study.
The United States also lists the clouded leopard under the Endangered Species Act, further prohibiting trade in the animals or any parts or products made from them in the United States. These bans, however, are poorly enforced.
Early captive breeding programs involving clouded leopards were met with little success, largely due to ignorance of courtship activity among these cats in the wild. Experience has taught keepers that introducing pairs of clouded leopards at a young age gives opportunities for the pair to bond and breed successfully. Introducing pairs as older adults may cause the animals such stress that the male may kill the female. Modern breeding programs involve carefully regulated introductions between prospective mating pairs and take into account the requirements for enriched enclosures. Stimulating natural behaviour by providing adequate space to permit climbing minimizes stress. This, combined with a feeding program that fulfills the proper dietary requirements, has promoted more successful breeding in recent years.
In March 2011, two breeding females at the Nashville Zoo at Grassmere in Nashville, Tennessee gave birth to three cubs, which are being raised by zookeepers. Each cub weighed a half pound. In June 2011, two cubs were born at the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium in Tacoma, Washington. The breeding pair was brought from the Khao Kheow Open Zoo in Thailand in an ongoing education and research exchange program. Four cubs were born at the Nashville Zoo in 2012.
As of December 2011, 222 clouded leopards are believed to exist in zoos.
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