An inshore species of the continental and insular shelves, commonly found in shallow waters close inshore, near the surf line and along beaches. Sometimes ascends rivers. Feeds on bottom fishes (croakers, soles, hairtails, sharp-nosed sharks and other species, skates, shrimps, cuttlefish, sea snails), crustaceans and molluscs. Apparently viviparous. Size at birth about 71 to 72 cm. Potentially dangerous. Utilized fresh for human consumption.
- Anon. (1996). FishBase 96 [CD-ROM]. ICLARM: Los Baños, Philippines. 1 cd-rom pp. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=5909