Colour in life: variable, grey, yellow beneath with orange apexed papillae covering surface, or grey-brown or purple brown with yellow papillae (Humphreys, 1981). Also distributed in Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, East Indies and Pacific Islands (Pearson, 1910); SE Arabia, Persian Gulf, Maldive area, Ceylon, Bay of Bengal, East Indies, north Australia, Philippine, China, south Japan, South Pacific Is. and Hawaiian Is. (Clark & Rowe, 1971); Australia (Rowe & Gates, 1995); India (Sastry, 1996). General distribution: almost circumtropical (Tortonese, 1980); circumtropical, Indo-west Pacific Ocean, depth range 0-30 m. (Rowe & Gates, 1995). Ecology: benthic, inshore, detritus feeder, deposit feeder (Rowe & Gates, 1995).