Clerodendrum infortunatum (common name hill glory bower; synonyms Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. and Volkameria infortunata Roxb.) is a perennial shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae, also sometimes classified under Verbenaceae. It is the type species among ~400 species of Clerodendrum. It is one of the most well-known natural health remedies in traditional practices and siddha medicine.
C. infortunatum is a flowering shrub or small tree, and is so named because of its rather ugly leaf. The stem is eresct, 0.5–4 m high, with no branches and produce circular leaves with 6 inch diameter. Leaves are simple, opposite; both surfaces sparsely villous-pubes-cent, elliptic, broadly elliptic, ovate or elongate ovate, 3.5–20 cm wide, 6–25 cm long, dentate, inflorescence in terminal, peduncled, few-flowered cyme; flowers white with purplish pink or dull-purple throat, pubescent. Fruit berry, globose, turned bluish-black or black when ripe, enclosed in the red accrescent fruiting-calyx. The stem is hollow and the leaves are 6-8 inch (15–20 cm) long, borne in whorls of four on very short petioles. The inflorescence is huge, consisting of many tubular snow white flowers in a terminal cluster up to 2 ft (0.6 m) long. The tubes of the flowers are about 4 inch (10 cm) long and droop downward, and the expanded corollas are about 2 inch (5 cm) across. The fruits are attractive dark metallic blue drupes, about a half inch in diameter. Fruit usually with 4 dry nutlets and the seeds may be with or without endosperm. It flowers from April to August.
The major compounds are sterols, sugars, flavonoids and saponins. Novel crystalline compounds such as clerodolone, clerodone, clerodol and a sterol designated clerosterol have been isolated from the root. Seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, glucose and fructose were identified. Fumaric acid, caffeic acid esters, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from the flowers. Apigenin, acacetin and a new flavone glycoside, characterised as the methyl ester of acacetin-7-0-glucuronide are isolated from the flowers. Saponin is one of the major compounds of the leaf. 24 beta-ethylsterols, clerosterol and 22-dehydroclerosterol, 24-methyl-sterols (24-methylcholestanol, 24-methylcholesterol, 24-methyl-22-dehydrocholesterol, and 24-methyllathostero) and 24 beta-ethyl-22-dehydrocholestanol are found in the seeds. Scutellarin and hispidulin-7-O-glucuronide are present in the leaf. Poriferasterol and stigmasterol are the components of the aerial parts.
Ayurvedic and Siddha medicines
The leaves and roots of C. infortunatum are used as herbal remedy for alopecia, asthma, cough, diarrhoea, rheumatism, fever and skin diseases. It is also known to have hepato-protective and antimicrobial activities. The roots and bark of stem of this plant prepared as decoction and given in the dose of 60-80 ml twice daily for respiratory diseases, fever, periodic fever, cough, bronchial asthma, etc. The leaves are ground well and applied externally to induce ripenning of ulcers and swellings. A paste of leaves and roots are applied externally over skin diseases especially fungal infections and alopecia. Fresh leaves are given for diarrhoea, liver disorders and headache.
The leaf and root are widely used as antidandruff, antipyretic, ascaricide, laxative, vermifuge, and in treatments of convulsion, diabetes, gravel, malaria, scabies, skin diseases, sore, spasm, scorpion sting, snake bite and tumor. In Thai medicine the leaves and root are known to be diuretic; and used for treatment of intestinal infections and kidney disfunction; when boiled or ground with water, it is take to increase milk secretion for post-labor. In many traditional practices the leaves and root are widely used as antihyperglycemic.
The ethanolic extracts is shown to have significant anti-microbial activity comparable to the standard drug tetracycline. The antioxidant and its protective effects against CCl4 induced oxidative stress in rats were significantly high. It reportedly decreased the duration of seizures and gave protection in a dose-dependent manner against leptazol-induced convulsions. Methanolic extract caused significant reduction of fatty degeneration and liver necrosis, thus, indicating moderate hepatoprotective activity. The methanol extract of the leaves was demonstrated to reduce blood sugar level in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats.
- ^ a b Jayaweera DMA (982). Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon Part V. The National Science Council of Sri Lanka, Colombo, pp. 160-161
- ^ Manzoor-Khuda M, Sarela S (1965). "Constituents of Clerodendron infortunatum (bhat)—I : Isolation of clerodolone, clerodone, clerodol and clerosterol". Tetrahedron 21 (4): 797–802. doi:10.1016/0040-4020(65)80012-6.
- ^ Sinha NK, Pandey VB, Shah AH, Dasgupta B (1980). "Chemical constituents of the flowers of Clerodendron [Clerodendrum] infortunatum". Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 42 (3): 96–97.
- ^ Sinha NK, Seth KK, Pandey VB, Dasgupta B, Shah AH (1981). "Flavonoids from the flowers of Clerodendron infortunatum". Planta Med 42 (7): 296–298. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971645. PMID 17401979.
- ^ a b Pal D, Sannigrahi S, Mazumder UK (2009). "Analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of saponin isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. in mice". Indian J Exp Biol 47 (9): 743–747. PMID 19957887. http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/5978/1/IJEB%2047%289%29%20743-747.pdf.
- ^ Akihisa T, Matsubara Y, Ghosh P, Thakur S, Tamura T, Matsumoto T. (1989). "Sterols of some Clerodendrum species (Verbenaceae): occurrence of the 24 alpha- and 24 beta-epimers of 24-ethylsterols lacking a delta 25-bond". Steroids 53 (3-5): 625–638. PMID 2799860.
- ^ Subramanian SS, Nair AGR (1973). "Scutellarin and hispidulin-7-O-glucuronide from the leaves of Clerodendrum indicum and Clerodendron infortunatum". Phytochemistry 12 (5): 1195. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(73)85054-X.
- ^ Akihisa T, Matsubara Y, Ghosha P, Thakura S, Shimizub N, Tamura T, Matsumoto T (1988). "The 24a- and 24ß-epimers of 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3ß-ol in two Clerodendrum species". Phytochemistry 27 (4): 1169–1172. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(88)80296-6.
- ^ Siddha Medicines and Treatments
- ^ Khare, CP (ed) (2008). Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. Springer-verlag, p. 160. ISBN 0387706372
- ^ Duke JA (2010). Ethnobotanical uses: Clerodendrum infortunatum. Dr. Dukes's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database
- ^ Sharma HK, Chhangte L, Dolui AK (2001). "Traditional medicinal plants in Mizoram, India". Fitoterapia 72 (2): 146–161. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00278-1.
- ^ Rahman A-U, Zaman K (1989). "Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic activity". J Ethnopharmacol 26 (1): 1–55. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90112-8. PMID 2664356.
- ^ Modi AJ, Khadabadi SS, Farooqui IA, Ghorpade DS (2010). "Studies on antimicrobial activity of Clerodendrum infrotunatum, Argyreia nervosa and Vitex negundo: A comparision". Der Pharmacia Lettre 2 (1): 102–105. http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/DPL-vol2-iss1/DerPharmaciaLettre-%202010-2-1-102-105.pdf.
- ^ Gouthamchandra K, Mahmood R, Manjunatha H (2010). "Free radical scavenging, antioxidant enzymes and wound healing activities of leaves extracts from Clerodendrum infortunatum L.". Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 30 (1): 11–18. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2010.03.005.
- ^ Sannigrahi1 S, Mazumder UK, Pal D, Mishra SL (2009). "Hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats". Phcog Mag 5 (20): 394–399. http://www.phcog.com/article.asp?issn=0973-1296;year=2009;volume=5;issue=20;spage=394;epage=399;aulast=Sannigrahi.
- ^ Das S, Bhattacharya S, Prasanna A, Suresh Kumar RB, Pramanik G, Haldar PK (2011). "Preclinical evaluation of antihyperglycemic activity of Clerodendron infortunatum leaf against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats". Diabetes Ther 2 (2): 1–9. doi:10.1007/s13300-010-0019-z. http://www.diabetestherapy-open.com/Library/journalfiles/99DT22_Haldar%20for%20web.pdf.