Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans) has a broad tropical distribution. Avicennia includes about 15 species, mostly restricted to coastal tidal regions in the tropics (Elias 1980). Tree and shrub species are described as mangroves based on their ecology rather than evolutionary relatedness, so mangrove species represent numerous plant families.
Black Mangrove groves are virtually impenetrable because of the dense branches. The trees produce numerous upright, unbranched roots (pneumatophores) above water and around the edges of the trees to provide the extensive root system with air. These pneumatophores also trap detritus brought in by the tides. (Elias 1980)
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