Groupers are a highly-exploited family of fishes taken in sport, artisanal, and commercial fisheries. The larger species are often territorial (with high site fidelity), grow slowly to maturity over several years, and congregate in large offshore spawning aggregations. These behavioral and life-history characteristics, as well as the market for their meat, make then especially vulnerable to overfishing. Groupers are present in various habitats, including coral reefs, estuaries, and rocky reefs of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Juveniles generally inhabit seagrass beds. Many species are top-predators, consuming other fishes, crustaceans (e.g., crabs, shrimps), and squids.
- Heemstra, P. C. and J. E. Randall. 1984. Serranidae. Page 4319 in: Fisher, W. and G. Bianchi (Eds.). FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (fishing area 51). Vol. IV. 241. FAO, Rome.
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