All larvae are case bearers throughout all instars and feed on a broad range of plant hosts, from lichens, grasses, to leaves of evergreen and decidous trees and shrubs; a few have also been reported as insectivorous (Clausen 1940). Structure of larval case highly divergent (Figs. 7.6F-N), from helical (Fig. 7.6 H) to greatly elongated, from less than 6 mm long at maturity to 32.7 cm (Oiketicus aristocosma). Number of instars not well known, at least 4 or more (Jones and Parks 1928; Davis 1964; Kozhanchikov 1956) the male sometimes possessing one more instar than female.
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