Adult Abdomen Morphology
Female genitalia description:
Highly variable depending upon degree of specialization; segments 8 and 9 + 10 usually long and telescoping, with 2 pairs of apophyses and 1 pair of pseudapophyses (within A10) in more basal genera, to greatly shortened and with only 1-2 pairs of apophyses in most derived, vermiform ?? (Davis 1964). Ostium located on S8 or at caudal margin. Ductus bursae and corpus bursae usually short and membranous; signum absent; ductus seminalis sometimes greatly elongated in most derived genera.
Female pregenital sexual scales:
Female accessory glands:
Female oviduct opening:
Female bursa ostium opening:
on venter 8
Female anterior apophyses originating:
originating from T8
Male pregenital sexual scales:
Male genitalia description:
Uncus completely fused, rounded caudally or represented by short, setose lobes. Tegumen well developed, hoodlike. Vinculum U- to Y -shaped; saccus often elongate. Gnathos absent. Juxta sometimes present and fused with partially sclerotized anellus in lower forms. Subscaphium sometimes sclerotized, usually absent. Valvae relatively slender, elongate, typically with a broad, setose pad at base (often referred to as pulvillus, vallum penis, but probably derived from anellus) as well as an acute or spinose process from ventral margin or apex of sacculus. Transtilla usually present. Seven pairs of genital muscles present (Kuznetsov and Stekol'nikov 1977). Aedoeagus elongate, slender, usually without cornuti.
Sternum 5 gland:
Adult abdomen description:
Paired sternal apodemes of S2 elongate, straight to curved, continuing more than half way into 2S as sternal rods. A pair of short coremata sometimes present on S8 of males in more primitive genera; S8 usually sclerotized with a pair of prominent apodemes directed anteriorly. Female with dense corethrogyne of long piliform scales encircling A7, often concentrated in clusters.
phallotheca and aedeagus (phallus)
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