Adult Thorax Morphology
Adult thorax description:
Male fully winged, female either fully winged, brachypterous, apterous, or vermiform with all body appendages vestigial or lost. Metafurca with furcal apophyses joined as a bridge to secondary arms; Legs with tibial spur pattern highly variable, ranging from 0-2-4 to 0-0-0; epiphysis present or absent. apterous, or vermiform with all body appendages vestigial or lost.
Number of tibial spurs foreleg:
Number of tibial spurs midleg:
from 0 to 2
Number of tibial spurs hindleg:
from 2 to 4
Forewing length from mid-dorsum to apex (mm):
from 4 to 28mm
Forewing with M present in cell; accessory and intercalary cells usually absent; 1A + 2A either with or without basal fork.
Forewing cell veins:
Forewing basal loop:
present, with frenulum
Forewings slender to broad; index 0.3-0.66, forewings normally with 7-9 veins arising from cell; Rs4 terminating on termen. Male retinaculum varying from a broad fold to a more slender coiled flap from underside of costal membrane immediately anterior to and extending under base of Sc.
Hindwing index 0.33-0.76; male frenulum a single stout seta; alate female with 3-8 frenular setae.
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