Eastern Atlantic: Vardø, Norway, Baltic Sea and the British Isles to Morocco. Also throughout the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Record off Ghana is still questionable (Ref. 4509).
- Dawson, C.E. 1986 Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6733) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=6733&speccode=67
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