Found among algae on rocky shores and on hard bottom in deeper water, or depth of 55 meters or more (Ref. 51666). Male guards multiple egg masses (Ref. 58332).
- Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray 1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=7251&speccode=942