Breeding activities and social organization
Many populations of marsh wren are polygynous, with some males mating with two, occasionally three, females in a season, while the remaining males have one mate or remain bachelors. For example, Leonard and Picman (1987) found 5 to 11 percent bachelor males, 41 to 48 percent monogamous males, 37 to 43 percent bigamous males, and 5 to 12 percent trigamous males in two marshes in Manitoba, Canada. Similarly, Verner and Engelsen (1970) found 16 percent bachelors, 57 percent monogamous, and 25 percent bigamous males in eastern Washington state. In contrast, Kale (1965) found most males to be monogamous through 4 years of study in Georgia.
Males arrive at the breeding marshes before the females to establish territories that include both nest sites and foraging areas (Kale, 1965; Verner, 1965; Welter, 1935). Males build several nests in their territories throughout the breeding season (Kale, 1965; Verner, 1965). The female usually only adds lining material to a nest of her choice, although some may help construct the breeding nest (Kale, 1965). Breeding nests are oblong in shape, with a side opening, and are woven of cattails, reeds, and grasses and lashed to standing vegetation, generally 30 cm to 1 m above standing water or high tide (Bent, 1948; Verner, 1965). Incubation lasts approximately 2 weeks, as does the nestling period (Kale, 1965; Verner, 1965). After fledging, one or both parents continue to feed the young for about 12 days (Verner, 1965). Many populations typically rear two broods per year, although some may rear three (Kale, 1965; Verner, 1965). In the more monogamous populations, both parents regularly feed young, but in the more polygynous ones, the females may provide most of the food, with males assisting only toward the end of the nestling period (Leonard and Picman, 1988; Verner, 1965).
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