The pollen grains of seed plants are protected from dehydration via a hard coat.
"The gymnosperms, and the flowering plants which evolved more recently, among other, much smaller groups, have developed pollen which carries the male gamete in a form protected from dehydration to special receptive structures in the female part of the flower (pollination)." (Cutler 2005:96)
Learn more about this functional adaptation.
- Cutler, DF. 2005. Design in plants. In: Collins, MW; Atherton, MA; Bryant, JA, editors. Nature and Design. Southampton, Boston: WIT Press. p 95-124
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