Whilst this beetle is a priority species of the Habitats Directive, protection is poorly enforced. Removal permission is generally granted without a hermit beetle search, and only trees that are known to have hermit beetles living in them are protected. Since hermit beetles are rarely obvious on the outside of the tree, populations are often not found until the tree has been felled (2). Conservation measures need to include the preservation of remaining natural forest, to preserve and restore habitats connected with historic agricultural landscapes, and to preserve any remaining suitable habitat in urban areas (4). The hermit beetle serves as an 'umbrella' species for other hollow-dwelling species since it is better known, and protecting it will result in overall protection for this important habitat type (2).