Usually occurs over mud in swamps, vegetated sloughs, ponds, lakes, backwaters, and quiet pools of creeks and small to large rivers (Ref 5723, 10294). Nocturnal feeder. Feeds on aquatic insects, small crustacea, and occasional small fish including their own young (Ref. 10294).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5723&speccode=2590