Inhabit shallow waters of continental shelf. Adults are highly migratory while at sea (Ref. 57533). Ascend coastal rivers to spawn. Eggs demersal, measuring 2.55 mm in diameter and hatching in 1 week at 17.8°C (Ref. 9980). Juveniles may remain in fresh or brackish water until 3-5 years of age or 76-91.5 cm long (Ref. 4639). Females take 8 to 30 years to reach sexual maturity and spawn only every 3-4 years. Exact time of spawning depends on temperature (Ref. 26938). Used smoked and fresh (Ref. 37032).
- Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr 1991 A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723) http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=5723&speccode=2590