Comments: In the southern Appalachians of the United States, the plants grow on the bark of Fraser fir, mountain-ash, and occasionally red spruce on mountain peaks above 1830 m elevation. The plants appear to require dense shade and moist conditions of mist and fog. Associated species are Bazzania nudicaulis, Plagiochila corniculata, Herbertus aduncus, and Anomylia cuneifolia. It seems to prefer somewhat smoother bark than other bark-inhabiting bryophytes in the fir forests. The European plants, considered to be the same species, grow almost exclusively on rock outcrops (Boyer 1997 and Hicks 1996).