Comments: Highly threatened by succession, and to a lesser extent by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002). In Michigan, this species may be threatened by alterations to hydrology and woody encroahment due to fire supression (Higman and Penskar 1999). In Ohio, this species is threatened by farming of prairies (McCance and Burns 1984). It is also somewhat sensitive to grazers.
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