Stewardship Overview: Management for B. canadensis should include the use of prescribed fire, selective thinning of the canopy or controlled mowing in order to maintain high light levels and eliminate woody plant encroachment. Habitats need protection from urbanization, agricultural activities, destructive recreational activities, land development, indiscriminate pesticide application, excessive grazing and exotic species. Monitoring of occurrences should be conducted frequently to track their status with respect to management activities. Habitat quality should be monitored and an assessment of threats to all populations should be made. Cooperative efforts between state and federal regulatory agencies (e.g., USDA and state departments) should be exercised to reduce or eliminate the effects of continued Berberis eradication efforts. Research is needed to accurately assess the role of B. canadensis as an alternate host to stem rust. Investigations into the reproductive biology, genetic variation, pollination vectors, factors effecting seed production and the response to management activities are also needed.