Comments: Mahonia species are reportedly used as a substitute for goldenseal (Tilford 1998). Some experts in the medicinal plant industry have suggested that trade is medium to large and demand has increased over the past ten years (Robbins 1999). According to Michael McGuffin, president of the American Herbal Products Association, current demand is relatively modest. But increased interest is possible. Therefore, trends in commercial interest and collecting activities should continue to be monitored even though it is relatively common in its native range. This species is traded in the medicinal, herbal, and landscaping markets (Vance et al. in press). Mahonia aquifolium is the preferred species in this genus for commercial collection due to large root size (Vance et al. in press). See Vance et al. (in press) for suggested guidelines for sustainable harvesting techniques.