Adults may be confused with the slimy salamander (Plethodon grobmani), small-mouthed salamander (Ambystoma texanum), or Mabee's salamander (Ambystoma mabeei). Slimy salamanders are readily distinguished by the presence of a small groove (nasolabial groove) from the nostril to upper lip (absent in all Ambystoma). Ambystoma texanum (smallmouth salamander) overlaps the range of Ambystoma cingulatum in extreme southwestern Alabama. Small-mouthed salamanders have a very short, rounded snout and, in Alabama, are brown or dark gray with lichen-like light blotches (Mount 1975). In South Carolina, Ambystoma cingulatum has been observed breeding in the same wetland as Ambystoma mabeei (Anderson and Williamson 1976). The body of Mabee's salamander is dark brown or black with pale specks that are concentrated along the sides.
Although the flatwoods salamander larval pattern is distinctive, two other Ambystoma larvae may appear similar to the untrained eye. Like Ambystoma cingulatum, Ambystoma mabeei larvae have a light mid-lateral stripe between two dark lateral stripes. However, unlike the continuous lateral stripes of Ambystoma cingulatum, those of Ambystoma mabeei are broken into blotches (Hardy and Olmon 1974). In addition, the stripe extending from the snout to the gills in Ambystoma mabeei is diffuse and indistinct, and the upper lip stripe is replaced by a series of spots (Hardy and Olmon 1974). Larval mole salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum) may have an indistinct, light mid-lateral stripe, but are readily distinguished from Ambystoma cingulatum larvae by the presence of a dark mid-ventral stripe and dark dorsal crossbands (pers. obs.). The light mid-lateral stripe of larval Ambystoma cingulatum is retained by metamorphs through their first year (pers. obs.). It is best observed by shining a bright light through the body.