Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Migrates up to about 2 km between terrestrial habitat and breeding pond (S. Sweet, cited by USFWS 2002); rain storms precede major migrations to the breeding sites, with most migration on rainy nights.
During the first night's emigration from a breeding pond, individuals moved up to 129 m from the pond; most moved less than 80 m; total distance moved on subsequent nights were not determined (Loredo et al. 1996). For 8 radio-tagged individuals followed for up to 4 months, Trenham (2001) found that the maximum distance moved from the breeding pond was 248 m (mean = 94 m).
Juveniles have been observed to migrate up to 1.6 km from breeding ponds to estivation areas (Austin and Shaffer 1992).
Migrations may occur from November through April (Holland et al. 1990).
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