Dustan (1977), Tunnell (1983): preyed upon by Hermodice caruncullata (fire worm) and Coralliophila abbreviata. Shinn (1976): linear growth rate of 80-264 mm/yr. Gladfelter et al. (1978): linear growth rate estimated at 71 mm/yr. Peters (1984): inflicted with white band disease. Ghiold and Smith (1990), Williams and Bunkley-Williams (1990): susceptible to bleaching (loss of zooxanthellae) due to adverse environmental conditions.