Solitary or slightly gregarious at sea.
Large sharks, killer whales, and northern sea lions are the primary predators. Mortality rate is nearly 50% in first year; natural mortality averages 10-20% per year for 2-3-year-olds, 10-11% for mature females, and 32-38% for adult males (Reeves et al. 1992).
Some movement occurs among rookeries; immigrants from the Pribilof, Commander, and Robben islands contributed to growth of the San Miguel Island colony, and recent repopulation of the Kuril Islands evidently resulted from immigration of seals from western and eastern Bering Sea rookeries (Reeves et al. 1992).
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