Number of Occurrences
Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.
Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300
Comments: In Wisconsin, this species is extremely rare (Mathiak, 1979). In Illinois, it is restricted to the north fork Vermilion River where it is sporadic (Cummings and Mayer, 1997). It was recently collected in the Middle Fork North Branch Vermillion River and Jordan Creek in Illinois and Indiana (Szafoni et al., 2000); recently in the Fox River basin (weathered subfossil) and in Wisconsin (live) in the Mukwonago River (possibly the only remaining population in the entire Upper Mississippi River basin) (Schanzle et al., 2004). Indiana distribution: Wabash mainstem (historical) and tributaries (current) (Fisher, 2006), Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), East Fork White (Harmon, 1992). In Ohio, it is widespread across the state but absent from the unglaciated southeast (Watters, 1992; 1995; Lyons et al., 2007; Grabarciewicz, 2008; Watters et al., 2009). In North Carolina, it is reported from the Hiwassee, Little Tennessee, and historically from the French Broad Rivers (Bogan, 2002) in Cherokee, Clay, Jackson, Macon, and Swain Cos. (LeGrand et al., 2006). It was reported from the upper South Fork Holston (Stansbery and Clench, 1978) and recently in Copper Creek and Upper Clinch river in Virginia (Fraley and Ahlstedt, 2000; Jones et al., 2001; Hanlon et al., 2009). Jones and Neves (2007) summarize distribution in the upper North Fork Holston River (Smyth and Bland Cos., Virginia) as rkm 135.8 to 209.2. In Tennessee, it occurs throughout the upper Tennessee River drainage including the Powell, Clinch, Holston, Watauga, French Broad, Nolichucky, Little Pigeon, Little, Obed, Little Tennessee, Hiwassee, and Sequatchie Rivers. In the lower Tennessee River, it may be found in numerous tributaries including the Elk, Buffalo, and Duck Rivers. In the Cumberland River system, it is found sporadically in the Big South Fork Cumberland, Obey, Caney Fork, Collins, and Stones Rivers, but rarely in the mainstem of the Cumberland River (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). In Alabama, it is restricted to the Tennessee River system (Mirarchi, 2004) in the Paint Rock River (Ahlstedt, 1996) and other tributaries (Williams et al., 2008). In Kentucky, it is occasional to sporadic in the lower Cumberland River and eastward (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003), South Fork Kentucky (Evans, 2008) and Green (Gordon, 1991). It was recently collected from 6 of 38 sites surveyed (only found alive at a single site) in the Tonawanda Creek basin (Niagara River drainage) in western New York (Marangelo and Strayer, 2000). It was found in Little Mahoning Creek watershed, Pennsylvania (Chapman and Smith, 2008). This species is also known from the Clinton River drainage in Michigan (Trdan and Hoeh, 1993; Strayer, 1980) and southern upper peninsula (Goodrich and Van der Schalie, 1939) in Lakes Michigan and St. Clair basins (Badra and Goforth, 2003). Specimens from the Black River (St. Clair drainage), Michigan, were relocated to the Detroit River in 1992 (Trdan and Hoeh, 1993). It was recently found in the Little River, Oklahoma (Vaughn and Taylor, 1999; Vaughn, 2000); where it was known historically (Branson, 1984). It was collected in the 1990s in the Poteau (Vaughn and Spooner, 2004) and Mountain Fork (Spooner and Vaughn, 2007) Rivers, Arkansas/Oklahoma. In Canada, this species was once widely distributed and relatively common in southern Ontario, but is now extremely rare in most systems, but significant populations can still be found in the Sydenham (Metcalfe-Smith et al., 2003), Maitland River (Lake Huron drainage), Moira River (Lake Ontario drainage), and the delta area of Lake St. Clair (Metcalfe-Smith and Cudmore-Vokey, 2004).