NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Large range mainly in rivers and river-mouth estuaries in the central and southeastern United States and eastern Mexico; uncommon to rare in most of range, abundant enough to support fisheries in some areas; extirpated or disappearing in northern part of range, declining in the south; declining in abundance most areas; decline may be related to channelization, impoundments, frequent barge traffic, and commercial fishing.
Other Considerations: Of the 13 states in the U.S. range, ranked SX or SH in three, S1 or S2 in six, S3 in three, and S4 in one (Texas). The S4 rank in Texas may not reflect a recent evaluation of status. Two states with ranks of S3 (Tennessee and Florida) actually have very few recent occurrence records. Scarcity of this species in museum collections is in part related to the large size of most specimens that are captured (Gilbert 1992).
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