Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed
Comments: Harvest is banned in all U.S. jurisdictions inhabited by this fish, but incidental catch occurs in commercial fisheries and this does not provide habitat protection.
Needs: Maintain the U.S. moratorium on harvesting. Improve water quality in rivers, restrict habitat alteration, regulate commercial fishing; protect spawning sites.
Smith (1985, cited by Johnson et al. 1997) recommended a rangewide threatened or endangered designation and a moratorium on harvest. The management plan adopted by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission in 1990 called for size limits, a moratorium on harvest, or adoption of alternative measures that are conservationally equivalent (Taub 1990, cited by Johnson et al. 1997).