Comments: Barren, rocky or grassy areas and cliffs among glaciers or beyond timberline; in migration and winter also in open situations, fields, cultivated lands, brushy areas, and around human habitation (AOU 1983). Subspecies GRISEONUCHA and Umbrina breed on sea cliffs and feed on beaches and maritme tundra; other subspecies breed in alpine habitat.
Nests usually in rock crevices or holes in cliffs. Nests in buildings and other structures on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Johnson 1983).
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