Most nesting occurs May-June in Texas; September-October breeding in Venezuela; adults with young April-August and December-February in Colombia (Hilty and Brown 1986); nests May-October in Costa Rica (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Clutch size is 9-18. Incubation, by both sexes, lasts 25-30 days. Young are tended by both sexes, leave nest at 1-2 days, first fly at 56-63 days. Apparently breeds in first year. Life-long pair-bond. Intraspecific dump nesting is common. Nest density of 16/ha was observed on islands in Tamaulipas, Mexico.
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