Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Migrates northward to breeding grounds in March-April. Moves southward in fall, October-November (Terres 1980). Some that summer in northwestern Alaska spend the winter in eastern Asia. Passes through Bering Strait in large numbers in late April. Large numbers fly eastward to Beaufort Sea area breeding areas from western Alaska, some probably arrive from interior Alaska, others migrate from coastal British Columbia and/or Great Lakes region and arrive via Mackenzie Valley. Arrives along Beaufort Sea coast mid-May (in west) to early June (eastern part). In Beaufort Sea area, males and some nonbreeding females migrate in early summer to large lakes and coastal lagoons and form large molting flocks; remain through July and August (Johnson and Herter 1989). Fall migration in Beaufort Sea area begins with males in late August; females with broods move to coastal lagoons with freeze-up in September, begin migration late September or early October (Johnson and Herter 1989).
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