Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Holarctic. BREEDS: in Northern America, northern Alaska east across Canada to Hudson Bay, central Quebec, and New Brunswick (McAlpine et al. 1988), south to northwestern British Columbia, southeastern Michigan. WINTERS: southeastern Alaska south to Baja California; from eastern Great Lakes area and Canadian Maritime Provinces to southern Florida and Gulf Coast; casual in Hawaii. Primary wintering areas include the coastal Pacific Northwest, southern and eastern Great Lakes, and Atlantic coast centering around Long Island Sound (Root 1988).