Preserve Selection and Design Considerations: In North Dakota, few broods on ponds of less than 0.2 ha; broods tend to use semipermanent wetlands. Habitat suitability index model assumes that optimum conditions exist for pairs when a minimum of 150 optimum wetlands account for a minimum of 65 ha per 259-ha section in prairie pothole country; optimum conditions for broods when at least 20.2 ha of optimum wetlands are present on a 259-ha section and at least 6 optimum wetlands of at least 0.4 ha are present (Suchy and Anderson 1987).
Management Requirements: See Barker et al. (1990) for information on the effects of different livestock grazing systems on nesting success in North Dakota. See Marcy (1986) for specifications for the construction and placement of wire nest baskets.