Comments: Feeds on seeds, nuts, acorns, fruits, and grains, buds, and young grass blades. During summer eats many insects; may also eat some small vertebrates (frogs, toads, snakes, etc). Principal winter foods in the northeastern part of the range include acorns, fruits of multiflora rose and barberry, apples, field corn, fertile fronds of sensitive fern and various other ferns, mosses, and hardwood seeds and buds. In Massachusetts, manure spread on fields was an important source of food in winter (Vander Haegen et al. 1989). Usually forages on the ground.
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