Stewardship Overview: In North America, closely associated with old-growth forests and the presence of hollow and broken-top trees and snags (Carey 1989; Bull and Collins 1993; Lehmkuhl and Ruggiero 1991). Heavy logging of mature and old-growth forest in British Columbia, the Pacific Northwest of the United States, and coastal redwoods in the latter part of the 20th century have in all likelihood reduced the species' habitat significantly. Steep population declines are evident in the Pacific Northwest over the past twenty years (Bull and Collins 1993; Sauer et al. 2000).
Classified as a candidate for state listing in Washington (WDFG 2000). Classified as a "species of special concern" in California in 1994 (Sterling and Paton 1996). Considered a priority species for conservation in the Partners in Flight planning process for the southern Pacific rainforests physiographic region (extreme southwestern British Columbia, western Washington, western Oregon, and northern California; Pashley et al. 2000).
Species Impact: An insectivore, may be beneficial in controlling forest insect pests.