Comments: Forested and open situations, more commonly in the latter, from lowlands to mountains (AOU 1983). May roost in large flocks at night in trees; roosts often near or over water. In Pennsylvania, selected large conifers for mid-winter roost (Wright et al. 1986).
Eggs are laid in caves (especially in West); on cliffs; in hollow logs, trees, or stumps (tree-cavity nesting formerly more common); on ground in dense shrubbery (especially in eastern U.S.); sometimes in/under abandoned building in woods (Jackson 1983, Palmer 1988); sometimes in abandoned hawk nest (Hilty and Brown 1986). In Pennsylvania/Maryland, nested in areas that were roadless, forested, and undeveloped (Coleman and Fraser 1989).